1. Multiple choice questions.
(i) Which one of the following is suitable for Koeppen’s “A” type of climate?
(a) High rainfall in all the months
(b) Mean monthly temperature of the coldest month more than freezing point
(c) Mean monthly temperature of all the months more than 18o C
(d) Average temperature for all the months below 10° C
(ii) Koeppen’s system of classification of climates can be termed as :
(a) Applied (b) Systematic (c) Genetic (d) Empirical
(iii) Most of the Indian Peninsula will be grouped according to Koeppen’s system under:
(a) “Af” (b) “BSh” (c) “Cfb” (d) “Am”
(iv) Which one of the following years is supposed to have recorded the warmest temperature the world over?
(a) 1990 (b) 1998 (c) 1885 (d) 1950
(v) Which one of the following groups of four climates represents humid conditions?
A – Tropical, B – Dry Climates, C – Warm Temperate, E – Cold Climates
2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.
(i) Which two climatic variables are used by Koeppen for classification of the climate?
Ans. The Koeppen climatic classification is based on mean annual and mean monthly temperature and precipitation data.
(ii) How is the “genetic” system of classification different from the “empirical one”?
Ans. Genetic classification attempts to organize climates according to their causes. Applied classification is for a specific purpose. Empirical classification is easy to understand and data requirements are minimal. Here the classification is largely based on annual and monthly means of temperature and precipitation.
(iii) Which types of climates have a very low range of temperature?
Ans. Tropical Humid Climates is associated with a very low range of temperature. Tropical humid climates exist between Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn. The sun being overhead throughout the year and the presence of Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) make the climate hot and humid.
(iv) What type of climatic conditions would prevail if the sunspots increase?
Ans. When the number of sunspots increases, cooler and wetter weather and greater storminess occur.
3. Answer the following questions in about 150 words.
(i) Make a comparison of the climatic conditions between the “A” and “B” types of climate.
Group A type of climate
Group B type of climate
|These are also known as Tropical Humid Climates||These are known as Dry Climates|
|Annual range of temperature is very low and annual rainfall is high.||Annual rainfall is very low.|
|This type of climate exists between Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn.||This type of climate exists between 15° – 60° north and south of the equator dividing the region into low and mid-latitudes.|
|This region is usually wet due to the monsoon, but it has a short dry season as well.||Dry and arid condition is common in this particular climate.|
|This group is divided into 3 types – Tropical wet, Tropical monsoon and Tropical wet and dry.||This group is divided into steppe and desert climate which are – Subtropical steppe, Subtropical desert, Mid-latitude steppe, Mid-latitude desert.|
(ii) What type of vegetation would you find in the “C” and “A” type(s) of climate?
Ans. Since type A is associated with Tropical Humid Climates. The vegetation consists of Tropical rainforests which consist of evergreen trees, bushes, and shrubs, Deciduous forest, and tree-shredded grasslands.
And type C is associated with Warm temperate (Mid-latitude) Climates. The vegetation here consists of Evergreen trees like pine and cypress trees which are mixed with Deciduous trees such as oaks. Then fruit trees and vines such as grapes, figs, olives, and citrus fruits grow well here.
(iii) What do you understand by the term “Greenhouse Gases”? Make a list of greenhouse gases.
Ans. The term greenhouse is derived from a method that the people use in cold areas for preserving heat. Basically, a greenhouse is a room, cottage or a compartment made up of glass. Since glass is transparent, solar radiation gets in but it gets trapped inside and does not go outside. This way the sun’s long wave radiation is trapped within the glasshouse. It eventually increases the temperature inside the glass house which keeps everything inside warmer than outside. A very good example to understand this concept is to imagine your car parked outside on a hot summer day. When you enter your car, since the windows are closed you’ll feel more heat inside than outside. This is what happens in a greenhouse, where the incoming solar radiation is trapped inside a glass house for the preservation of heat.
The primary greenhouse gases are:- carbon dioxide (CO2), Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), ozone (O3), nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO).