Let’s get to know the Koeppen’s scheme of classification of climate. So this person Wladimir Köppen, who was basically a Russian-German climatologist, he classified the climate of the world by finding a close relationship between the vegetation and the climate of a particular region.

His aim was to make a chart with formulas and notations that would define the climatic boundaries in such a way that it showed close similarity with the existing vegetation.

In simple terms, he looked at the trees and plants of a particular region and then he figured out the relationship between the vegetation and the climate of that region. By finding a close relationship between the two, he created a chart which categorized different climates in groups along with its characteristic traits.

He selected certain values of temperature and precipitation and related them to the distribution of vegetation and used these values for classifying the climates.

He classified the entire world climate by assigning alphabetical letters (capital letters) – A, B, C, D, E, and H. These categories are further subdivided into subdivisions and types by indicating small letters like – a, b, c, d, h, f, m, w, k, and s. Now have a look at this table

Climatic Groups According to Koeppen



A- Tropical Average temperature of the coldest month is 18° C or higher
B- Dry Climates Potential evaporation exceeds precipitation
C- Warm Temperate The average temperature of the coldest month of the (Mid-latitude) climates years is higher than minus 3°C but below 18°C
D- Cold Snow forest The average temperature of the coldest month is minus 3° C or below
E- Cold Climates Cold Climates Average temperature for all months is below 10° C
H- Highlands Cold due to elevation
Climatic Types According to Koeppen


Type Letter Code


A-Tropical Humid Climate Tropical Wet

Tropical Monsoon

Tropical wet and dry




No dry season

Monsoonal, Short dry season

Winter dry season

B-Dry Climate Subtropical Steppe

Subtropical Desert

Mid-latitude Steppe

Mid-latitude Desert





Low-latitude semi-arid or dry

Low-latitude arid or dry

Mid-latitude semi-arid or dry

Mid-latitude arid or dry

C-Warm temperate Climates Humid subtropical

The Mediterranean

Marine west coast




No dry season

Dry hot summer

No dry season, warm and cool summer

D-Cold Snow-forest Climates Humid Continental Subarctic Df


No dry season, severe winter

Winter dry and very severe

E-Cold climates Tundra

Polar ice cap



No true summer

Perennial ice

H-highland Highland H Highland with snow cover


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