1. Multiple choice questions.

(i) Which two of the following extreme locations are connected by the east-west corridor?

(a) Mumbai and Nagpur (b) Silcher and Porbandar (c) Mumbai and Kolkata (d) Nagpur and Siligudi

(ii) Which mode of transportation reduces trans-shipment losses and delays?

(a) Railways (b) Roadways (c) Pipeline (d) Waterways

(iii) Which one of the following states is not connected with the H.V.J. pipeline?

(a) Madhya Pradesh (b) Maharashtra (c) Gujarat (d) Uttar Pradesh

(iv) Which one of the following ports is the deepest land-locked and wellprotected port along the east coast?

(a) Chennai (b) Paradwip (c) Tuticorin (d) Vishakhapatnam

(v) Which one of the following is the most important modes of transportation in India?

(a) Pipeline (b) Railways (c) Roadways (d) Airways

(vi) Which one of the following terms is used to describe trade between two or more countries?

(a) Internal trade (b) International trade (c) External trade (d) Local trade

2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

(i) State any three merits of roadways.

Ans. Merits of roadways:-

  1. They are cheaper than railways in terms of construction costs.
  2. Roads can go through dissected and undulating land areas and through steep mountains.
  3. They are economical as loading costs are low and door-to-door service can be availed of.

(ii) Where and why is rail transport the most convenient means of transportation?

Ans. In the northern plains, rail transport is the most convenient mode of transportation. This is because this region has vast level lands that are good for laying tracks, and huge population and high agricultural productivity, making rail transport a profitable venture

(iii) What is the significance of the border roads?

Ans. Border roads are strategically important as they improve accessibility to areas like the northern and north eastern border areas which have a difficult terrain.

(iv) What is meant by trade? What is the difference between international and local trade?

Ans. Trade is the movement of goods and services between regions for economic gain. Trade between two or more countries is termed as international trade, while trade occurring in a region within the same country is called local trade.

3. Answer the following questions in about 120 words.

(i) Why are the means of transportation and communication called the lifelines of a nation and its economy?

Ans. The means of transportation and communication are called the lifelines of a nation and its economy because they are the essential requirements for progress and development. Goods and services cannot move on their own from supply houses to demand locations. This necessitates the need for transportation. Thus, a country’s economy depends not only on the production and sale of goods and services, but also on their transport as well.

Globalization has been possible on account of easier and fast-developing communication channels between the countries of the world. Hence, it complements trade as well as transport. India is well-connected with the rest of the world due to these two things—transport and communication, which have contributed vastly to the development of our national economy. They have also added extensively to growing amenities and facilities improving our lifestyles.

(ii) Write a note on the changing nature of the international trade in the last fifteen years.

Ans. The changing nature of the international trade for India in the last fifteen years has been impressive. Exchange of information and knowledge has surpassed exchange of goods and commodities. With the help of advanced software knowledge and excellence in the field of information technology, India has emerged as a viable contender at the international level and is earning huge amounts of foreign exchange through it. Tourism has added India’s upgraded position in international trade. In 2004, there was a 23.5% increase in foreign tourist arrivals as against the number in 2003. Thus, international trade for India has undergone a tremendous change in the past fifteen years.

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