1. Multiple choice questions.

(i) Which one of the following industries uses limestone as a raw material.

(a) Aluminium (b) Cement (c) Sugar (d) Jute

(ii) Which one of the following agencies markets steel for the public sector plants?

(a) HAIL (b) SAIL (c) TATA Steel (d) MNCC

(iii) Which one of the following industries uses bauxite as a raw material?

(a) Aluminium (b) Cement (c) Jute (d) Steel

(iv) Which one of the following industries manufactures telephones, computer etc.

(a) Steel (b) Electronic (c) Aluminium (d) Information Technology

2. Answer the following briefly in not more than 30 words.

(i) What is manufacturing?

Ans. Production of goods in large quantities after processing from raw materials to more valuable products is called manufacturing.

(ii) Name any three physical factors for the location of the industry.

Ans. The location of industry is influenced by availability of raw material, labour, capital, power and market, etc.

(iii) Name any three human factors for the location of an industry.

Ans. Three human factors for location of an industry are labour, market, government policies.

(iv) What are basic industries? Give an example.

Ans. Basic industries are those industries which supply their products or raw materials to manufacture other goods e.g. iron and steel and copper smelting, aluminum smelting.

(v) Name the important raw materials used in the manufacturing of cement?

Ans. This industry requires bulky and heavy raw materials like limestone, silica, alumina and gypsum.

3. Write the answers of the following questions in 120 words.

(i) How are integrated steel plants different from mini steel plants? What problems does the industry face? What recent developments have led to a rise in the production capacity?

Ans. An integrated steel plant: it is large, handles everything in one place from putting together raw material to steel making, rolling and shaping.

A mini steel plant: these are smaller, have electric furnaces, use steel scrap and sponge iron. They have re-rollers that use steel ingots as well. They produce mild and alloy steel of given specifications.

India is an important iron and steel producing country in the world, but we are not able to perform to our full potential largely due to:

  1. High costs and limited availability of coking coal
  2. Lower productivity of labour
  3. Irregular supply of energy and
  4. Poor infrastructure.

Liberalization and Foreign Direct Investment have given a boost to the industry with the efforts of private entrepreneurs.

(ii) How do industries pollute the environment?

Ans. Industries are the reason there is an increase in pollution of land, water, air, noise and resulting degradation of environment.

  1. Air pollution – Smoke is emitted by chemical and paper factories, brick kilns, refineries and smelting plants, and burning of fossil fuels in big and small factories because of which undesirable gases, such as sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide is contaminating the air.
  2. Water pollution – Organic and inorganic industrial wastes and affluents are often discharged into rivers by industries like paper, pulp, chemical, textile and dyeing, petroleum refineries, tanneries and electroplating. As a result it kills the aquatic life and pollute the water and the ecosystem.
  3. Noise pollution – Industrial and construction activities create a lot of unwanted sound that can cause various physiological effects like hearing impairment, increased heart rate and blood pressure. Unwanted sound is an irritant and a source of stress.

(iii) Discuss the steps to be taken to minimize environmental degradation by industry?

Ans. Industries need to control environment degradation by following some measure like –

  1. minimizing use water for processing by reusing and recycling it in two or more successive stages
  2. harvesting of rainwater to meet water requirements
  3. treating hot water and effluents before releasing them in rivers and ponds.
  4. Treatment of industrial effluents can be done in three phases.


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