1. Answer the following questions.

(i) Which are the two main climatic factors responsible for soil formation?

Ans. Temperature and rainfall are the two main climatic factors responsible for soil formation.

(ii) Write any two reasons for land degradation today.

Ans. Deforestation and the indiscriminate use of chemical pesticides and fertilizers in agricultural lands are two factors contributing to land degradation.

iii) Why is land considered an important resource?

Ans. Land is considered as an important resource as it provides habitation to a wide variety of flora and fauna. It is also used by human beings for various purposes such as agriculture, forestry, mining, building houses and roads, and setting up industries.

(iv) Name any two steps that government has taken to conserve plants and animals.

Ans. Two steps that the government has taken to conserve plants and animals:-

  1. The government has set up national parks, wildlife sanctuaries and biosphere reserves for protecting natural vegetation and wildlife; for example, the Kaziranga National Park in Assam.
  2. The government has also banned the killing of lions, tigers, deer, great Indian bustards and peacocks. It has also prohibited the trade of the species of plants and animals protected under the international agreement CITES.

(v) Suggest three ways to conserve water.

Ans. Following are the three ways to conserve water:-

  1. Reduce:- Use only as much water as you need. Don’t waste water.
  2. Reuse:- Water which is left after washing the vegetables and cloths should be used for mopping.
  3. Recycle:- Sewage and effluents should be treated before being flown into rivers or ponds.

2. Tick the correct answer.

(i) Which one of the following is NOT a factor of soil formation?

(a) time (b) soil texture (c) organic matter

(ii) Which one of the following methods is most appropriate to check soil erosion on steep slopes?

(a) shelter belts (b) mulching (c) terrace cultivation

(iii) Which one of the following is NOT in favor of the conservation of nature?

(a) switch off the bulb when not in use

(b) close the tap immediately after using

(c) dispose polypacks after shopping

3. Match the followings.

(i) Land use

(c) productive use of land

(ii) Humus

(d) organic matter deposited on top soil

(iii) Rock dams

(a) prevent soil erosion

(iv) Arable land

(b) land suitable for agriculture

4. State whether the given statement is true or false. If true, write the reasons.

(i) Ganga–Brahmaputra plain of India is an overpopulated region.

Ans. True

(ii) Water availability per person in India is declining.

Ans. True

(iii) Rows of trees planted in the coastal areas to check the wind movement is called inter-cropping.

Ans. False

(iv) Human interference and changes of climate can maintain the ecosystem.

Ans. False

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