Secondary Activities – Chapter 6 Geography NCERT Class 12

1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

(i) Which one of the following statements is wrong?
(a) Cheap water transport has facilitated the jute mill industry along the Hugli.
(b) Sugar, cotton textiles and vegetable oils are footloose industries.
(c) The development of hydro-electricity and petroleum reduced, to a great extent, the importance of coal energy as a location factor for industry.
(d) Port towns in India have attracted industries.
(ii) In which one of the following types of economy are the factors of production owned individually ?
(a) Capitalist
(b) Mixed
(c) Socialist
(d) None
(iii) Which one of the following types of industries produces raw materials for other industries?
(a) Cottage Industries
(b) Small-scale Industries
(c) Basic Industries
(d) Footloose Industries
(iv) Which one of the following pairs is correctly matched ?
(a) Automobile industry … Los Angeles
(b) Shipbuilding industry … Lusaka
(c) Aircraft industry … Florence
(d) Iron and Steel industry … Pittsburgh

2. Write a short note on the following in about 30 words.

(i) High-Tech industry
Ans. It is called High-Tech industry because it simply uses high-technology,which  is the latest generation of manufacturing activities. The applications are developed through intensive research and development. Most of the workers in this industry are professional (white collar).Usage of robotics, computer-aided design (CAD) and electronic controls are common in this industry.
(ii) Manufacturing
Ans. Manufacturing industry is a machine based, power driven production unit where processing of raw material takes place in converting natural resources into a more valuable commodity.
(iii) Footloose industries
Ans. Footloose industries are those that are not dependent on any specific raw materials. They are dependent on component parts which can be obtained anywhere. They produce in small quantity and also employ a small labour force.

3. Answer the following in not more than 150 words.

(i) Differentiate between primary and secondary activities.
Primary Activities
Secondary Activities
It involves the extraction of raw materials from the Earth.
It involves the transformation of raw materials into valuable goods.
The types of workers in this sector include farmers, coal miners and hunters.
People engaged in this sector are – factory workers, craftsmen etc.
Primary activities ncludes, hunting and gathering, pastoral activities, fishing, forestry, agriculture, and mining and quarrying.
Secondary activities are concerned with manufacturing, processing and construction (infrastructure) industries.
People engaged in primary activities are called red-collar workers
People engaged in secondary activities are called blue-collar workers.

(ii) Discuss the major trends of modern industrial activities especially in the developed countries of the world.

Ans. Some major trends of modern industrial activities especially in the developed countries are:-
  1. Division of work – Workflow in a modern industry is divided into smaller tasks. These tasks are then assigned to individual workers, who work on it repeatedly. This way, the worker builds specialization in that particular work. Division of work is also effective in producing more goods/products with less effort.
  2. Mechanization – It refers to using gadgets to finish a task. Hitech computers, robotics, automation and controlled systems are being used without human aid to accomplish a task. Mechanization helps in boosting productivity and efficiency of the production work..
  3. Technological innovation – Today industries in developed countries are constantly investing in research and development and finding new ways to improve quality, eliminate wastage and inefficiency, and combating pollution. Technological innovation helps an organization become operationally effective, responsive and improve outcomes.
(iii) Explain why high-tech industries in many countries are being attracted to the peripheral areas of major metropolitan centers.

Ans. Metropolitan areas are region consisting of a densely populated urban population. Often it is regarded as vital economical, cultural and political centers of a state. These are also hub for regional and international associations and communications. These places can be identified by the sky-scraping buildings, shopping malls, metal roads, advanced hospitals, restaurants and other such amenities. Metropolitan cities also provide adequate employment opportunities and consists of skilled and highly skilled labours. High-Tech industries are highly mechanized, automated hence metropolitan areas are the perfect supplier of skilled labours, which is very important for this particular industry’s growth.

(iv) Africa has immense natural resources and yet it is industrially the most backward continent. Comment.

Ans. The reasons can be colonial exploitation, lack of skilled human resources, tribal divided societies, widespread corruption, dominated by natural phenomena etc.

Natural phenomena:- The continent’s northern half is primarily desert or arid, while its central and southern areas contain both savanna plains and very dense jungle (rainforest) regions. Africa is the hottest continent on earth; dry lands and deserts comprise 60% of the entire land surface. Infrastructure investments and maintenance can be very expensive, especially in such areas as landlocked, rural and sparsely populated countries in Africa.

Colonialism:- The principal aim of colonial rule in Africa by European colonial powers was to exploit natural wealth in the African continent at a low cost. The effects of colonialism are psychological and that domination by a foreign power has created a lasting sense of inferiority and subjugation that hinders growth and innovation.

Skilled human resources:- An educated and skilled human resource is a key lever for accelerating economic growth and human development. The poor level of skills and institutional development in natural resource management has resulted in yearly massive financial losses. Lack of specialized schools or institutions is the problem because the incentives for local skills development are lower than elitists’ interests and because of some perverse effects of the international division of labour.

Tribal divided society:- Traditionally, African societies and even states functioned through an elaborate system based on the family lineage, the clan, the tribe, and ultimately a confederation of groups with ethnic, cultural, and linguistic characteristics in common. Societies in Africa are deeply divided on these lines. This is clearly a resource for political manipulation and underestimating the fundamental social reality. Lack of unity creates doubt, suspicion, lack of trust and ultimately corruption.

Widespread corruption:- Corruption remains one of the most significant challenges to Africa’s governance, economic growth, peace, stability and development. The socio-economic and political cost of corruption in Africa is tremendous. Some countries, such as Rwanda and Tanzania, have made significant advances in reducing corruption. But others, including Nigeria, Kenya, South Africa and Sudan has hardly changed. Corruption has created a huge economic divide where some people have benefited their own pockets at the expense of the poor people. Government in Africa abuses public funds for private needs. Hence corruption is slowing the pace of Africa’s development.


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