1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.
(i) Migrations change the number, distribution and composition of the population in
(a) the area of departure
(b) the area of arrival
(c) both the area of departure and arrival
(d) none of the above
(ii) A large proportion of children in a population is a result of
(a) high birth rates
(b) high life expectancies
(c) high death rates
(d) more married couples
(iii) The magnitude of population growth refers to
(a) the total population of an area
(b) the number of persons added each year
(c) the rate at which the population increases
(d) the number of females per thousand males
(iv) According to the Census 2001, a “literate” person is one who
(a) can read and write his/her name
(b) can read and write any language
(c) is 7 years old and can read and write any language with understanding
(d) knows the 3 ‘R’s (reading, writing, arithmetic)
2. Answer the following questions briefly.
(i) Why is the rate of population growth in India declining since 1981?
Ans. The rate of population growth in India is declining since 1981 because:-
- The family planning program initiated by the government made a great impact on the mindset of the people.
- Educational programs have improved the literacy rate helping in increasing the awareness about the benefits of smaller family size.
- Parents became aware and wanted to give better quality of life to their children, i.e. good education, food, clothing, health, etc
(ii) Discuss the major components of population growth.
Ans. Major components of population growth are:-
- Birth rate
- Death rate
(iii) Define age structure, death rate and birth rate.
Ans. Age Structure: Number of people in different age groups in country is called age structure of the population. Population of a nation is generally grouped into three broad categories:-
- Children (Below 15 years of age): Economically unproductive and needs to be provided with the necessities of life (food, cloth, education, etc.)
- Working age (15 – 59 years): Economically and biologically productive
- Aged (Above 59 years of age): They can be economically productive even after retirement.
- Death Rate: The number of deaths per 1000 persons is called death rate.
- Birth Rate: The number of live births per 1000 persons is called birth rate.
(iv) How is migration a determinant factor of population change?
Ans. Movement of people from one place to another; in search of livelihood is called migration. Migration can be classified into two:-
- Migration within the country is called internal migration.
- Migration between two countries is called international migration.
Internal migration has no change on population size but it changes the population composition of a particular area. International migration can lead to a growth or de-growth in population; depending on the degree of immigration and emigration. In India, Poverty and lack of employment opportunities in rural areas work as ‘push’ factors which result in migration to urban areas. Better employment opportunities in urban areas work as ‘pull’ factors for migration. Due to increased migration towards urban areas, the share of urban population has increased from 17.29% in 1951 to 27.78% in 2001.
3. Distinguish between population growth and population change.
Ans. Population Growth:-
- Population growth is change in number of inhabitants of a country during a specific period of time.
- Population growth can be expressed in two ways:- in terms of absolute numbers and in terms of percentage change per year.
- Population change is change in population due to birth rates, death rates and migration.
- It is expressed in the addition of number of people.
4. What is the relation between occupational structure and development?
Ans. Occupational structure is the distribution of the population according to different types of occupation and development is the percentage of population that is economically active. Occupational structure has got a great impact on the development of any country. Developed nations suggest that when a greater portion of population engages in secondary and tertiary activities, it leads to great development.
5. What are the advantages of having a healthy population?
Ans. Health is an important component of population composition which affects the process of development. Human resource is the most important resource for the development of a country. A healthy population helps in building a productive workforce for the country. If the health of the population is properly looked after, productivity of an economy increases. Healthy children would grow into healthy adults and would be able to contribute better in the economy. Healthy elders would mean less drain on the resources.
6. What are the significant features of the National Population Policy 2000?
Ans. The new national population policy of 2000 was announced by the Government of India, its main features are:
- Redress the unmet needs for basic reproductive and child health services, supplies and infrastructure.
- Free and compulsory school education up to age 14, for both boys and girls.
- Reduce infant mortality rate to below 30 per 1000 live births.
- Reduce maternal mortality ratio to below 100 per 100,000 live births.
- Achieve universal immunization of children against all vaccine preventable diseases.
- Promote delayed marriage for girls, not earlier than age 18 and preferably after 20 years of age.
- Achieve 80 per cent institutional deliveries and 100 percent deliveries by trained persons.
- Making family welfare a people centered program.
- Preventing and controlling transmissible diseases.