1. Multiple choice questions.


(i) Which of these statements is not a valid reason for the depletion of flora and fauna?

(a) Agricultural expansion.

(b) Large scale developmental projects.

(c) Grazing and fuel wood collection.

(d) Rapid industrialization and urbanization.


(ii) Which of the following conservation strategies do not directly involve community participation?

(a) Joint forest management

(b) Beej Bachao Andolan

(c) Chipko Movement

(d) Demarcation of Wildlife sanctuaries


2. Match the following animals with their category of existence.


1. Black buck

Endangered species


2. Asiatic elephant

Vulnerable species


3. Andaman wild pig

Endemic species


4. Himalayan brown bear

Rare species


5. Pink head duck

Extinct species


3. Match the following.


1. Reserved forests

Ans. forests are regarded as most valuable as far as the conservation of forest and wildlife resources


2. Protected forests

Ans. forest lands are protected from any further depletion


3. Unclassed forests

Ans. other forests and wastelands belonging to both government and private individuals and communities


Answer the following questions in about 30 words.


1. What is biodiversity? Why is biological diversity important for human lives?

Ans. Biodiversity is immensely rich in wildlife and cultivated species, diverse in form and function, but closely integrated in a system through multiple networks of inter-dependencies. It is important for human life because the human beings, along with the biodiversity, form a complete web of ecological system in which we are only a part and are very much dependent on this system for our own existence.


2. Human activities affected the depletion of flora and fauna? Explain.


  1. Due to overpopulation, humans have destroyed habitats so that they can vacate large space for agriculture, mining, industrialization and urbanization. It has also led to wiping out of large forest areas.
  2. Humans do hunting, poaching and other illegal trade of animal skin, tusk, bones, teeth, horns, etc which has led many animals on the verge of extinction.
  3. Human activities also cause environmental pollution. Water gets poisoned due to discharge of industrial effluents, chemicals, wastes, etc.
  4. In some places shifting cultivation is performed which leads to forest fires. That wipes out valuable forests and wildlife.
  5. In rural areas grazing is performed and wood is used for fuel.


Answer the following questions in about 120 words.


1. Describe how communities have conserved and protected forests and wildlife in India?

Ans. Indian forests are home to some of the traditional communities. In some areas of India, local communities are struggling to conserve these habitats along with government officials. The Mundas and the Santhal of Chhota Nagpur region worship Mahua and Kadamba trees; the tribals of Orissa and Bihar worship the tamarind and mango trees. Similarly, the Bishnois of Rajasthan for these communities plants and animals are integral part of their identity, so they take a number of steps to protect the same. Near Sariska Reserve, villagers have opposed mining activities because these activities endanger wildlife. Villagers in the Alwar district of Rajasthan have banned hunting and lumbering activities. Such activities have helped in preservation of virgin forest land.


2. What are some of the good practices towards conserving forest and wildlife.

Ans. Protecting the forest and wildlife helps in spreading the ecological diversity and preserves our life support systems like food, water and air. It also preserves the genetic diversity of plants and animals for better growth of species and breeding. Nowadays, many NGOs are working towards creating public awareness towards depletion of forest cover and the extinction of wildlife. Government in India, both at center and state have set up national parks and wildlife sanctuaries to protect forests and endangered species. The Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act was implemented in 1972, for protecting habitats and preserving the remaining population of some endangered species by banning hunting and poaching. There are many other projects for protecting specific animals including the tiger, the one horned rhinoceros, the Kashmir stag or Hangul etc. The conservation projects are now focusing on biodiversity rather than on a few of its components. Various communities, especially in tribal areas are now taking an active role in conserving forest and wildlife.

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