Migration| Types, Causes & Consequences – Chapter 2 Class 12 NCERT Geography

1. Choose the right answers of the following from the given options.

(i) Which one of the following is the main reason for male migration in India?

(a) Education (b) Business (c) Work and employment (d) Marriage

(ii) Which one of the following states receives maximum number of immigrants?

(a) Uttar Pradesh (b) Delhi (c) Maharashtra (d) Bihar

(iii) Which one of the following streams is dominated by male migrants in India?

(a) Rural-rural (b) Urban-rural (c) Rural-urban (d) Urban-Urban

(iv) Which one of the following urban agglomeration has the highest share of in migrant population?

(a) Mumbai UA  (b) Delhi UA  (c) Bangalore UA  (d) Chennai UA

2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

(i) Differentiate between life-time migrant and migrant by last residence.

Ans. If the place of birth of a person is different from the place of enumeration, the person is known as lifetime migrant. If the place of last residence is different from the place of enumeration he is known as migrant by place of last residence.

(ii) Identify the main reason for male/female selective migration.

Ans. Work and employment has been the main cause for male migration 38% while it is only 3% for the females. Marriage is the main cause of migration among females 65% as they move out from their parental houses following their marriage.

(iii) What is the impact of rural-urban migration on the age and sex structure of the place of origin and destination?

Ans. Young males migrate from rural area to urban areas in search for job and employment. That reduces the population of young males in rural areas and increases in urban areas.  Male migration puts extra physical as well mental pressure on the women, as they leave their wives behind. As a result, the number of females, children and old people forms majority of the population in rural areas.

3. Answer the following questions in about 150 words.

(i) Discuss the consequences of international migration in India.

Ans. A major benefit for the source region is the remittance sent by migrants. Remittances from the international migrants are one of the major sources of foreign exchange. These are mainly used for food, repayment of debts, treatment, marriages, children’s education, agricultural inputs, construction of houses, etc.

The loss of human resources particularly highly skilled people is the most serious cost. The market for advanced skills has become truly a global market and the most dynamic industrial economies are admitting and recruiting significant proportions of the highly trained professionals from poor regions.

The illegal migration from neighboring countries of India caused population explosion and laid great stress on the available resources.

(ii) What are the socio demographic consequences of migration?

Ans. Social consequences are as followed:-

Migration leads to intermixing of people from diverse cultures.

It has positive contribution such as evolution of composite culture and breaking through the narrow considerations and widens up the mental horizon of the people at large.

But it also has serious negative consequences such as anonymity, which creates social vacuum and sense of dejection among individuals.

Continued feeling of dejection may motivate people to fall in the trap of anti-social activities like crime and drug abuse.

Demographic consequences:-

Migration leads to the redistribution of the population within a country.

Rural urban migration is one of the important factors contributing to the population growth of cities.

Age and skill selective out migration from the rural area have adverse effect on the rural demographic structure.

However, high out migration from Uttarakhand, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Eastern Maharashtra have brought serious imbalances in age and sex composition in these states.

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