1. Answer the following questions.

(i) What is meant by the term ‘industry’?

Ans. Industry refers to an economic activity that is concerned with production of goods, extraction of minerals or the provision of services. That’s why we have iron and steel industry (production of goods), coal mining industry (extraction of coal) and tourism industry (service provider).

(ii) Which are the main factors which influence the location of an industry?

Ans. The main factors affecting the location of industries are the availability of raw material, land, water, labour, power, capital, transport and market.

factors affecting location of industries upsc

(iii) Which industry is often referred to as the backbone of modern industry and why?

Ans. Steel is often called the backbone of modern industry. Almost everything we use is either made of iron or steel or has been made with tools and machinery of these metals. Ships, trains, trucks, and autos are made largely of steel. Even the safety pins and the needles you use are made from steel. Oil wells are drilled with steel machinery. Steel pipelines transport oil. Minerals are mined with steel equipment. Farm machines are mostly steel. Large buildings have steel framework.

(iv) Why cotton textile industry rapidly expanded in Mumbai?

Ans. The warm, moist climate, port for importing machinery, availability of raw material and skilled labour resulted in rapid expansion of the industry in Mumbai.

(v) What are the similarities between information technology industry in Bangalore and California?

Ans. Bangalore IT industry:-

  1. Bangalore is located on the Deccan Plateau.
  2. The city is known for its mild climate throughout the year.
  3. Bangalore has the largest number of educational institutions and IT colleges in India.
  4. The city was considered dust free with low rents and cost of living.
  5. The city has the largest and widest availability of skilled managers with work experience.

Silicon Valley IT industry:-

  1. Silicon Valley, is a part of Santa Clara Valley, located next to the Rocky Mountains of North America.
  2. The area has temperate climate with the temperatures rarely dropping below 0 degrees Celsius.
  3. Close to some of the most advanced scientific and technological centres in the world.
  4. Pleasant climate with an attractive and a clean environment. Plenty of space for development and future expansion.
  5. Located close to major roads and airports.
  6. Good access to markets and skilled work force.

2. Tick the correct answer.

(i) Silicon Valley is located in

(a) Bangalore (b) California (c) Ahmedabad

(ii) Which one of the following industries is known as sunrise industry?

(a)Iron and steel industry (b)Cotton textile (c) Information technology

(iii) Which one of the following is a natural fibre?

(a) nylon (b) jute (c) acryclic

3. Distinguish between the followings.

(i) Agro-based and mineral based industry

Ans. Agro based industries use plant and animal based products as their raw materials. Food processing, vegetable oil, cotton textile, dairy products and leather industries are examples of agro-based industries.

Mineral based industries are primary industries that use mineral ores as their raw materials. The products of these industries feed other industries. Iron made from iron ore is the product of mineral based industry. This is used as raw material for the manufacture of a number of other products, such as heavy machinery, building materials and railway coaches.

(ii) Public sector and joint sector industry

Ans. Public sector industries are owned and operated by the government, such as Hindustan Aeronautics Limited and Steel Authority of India Limited.

Joint sector industries are owned and operated by the state and individuals or a group of individuals. Maruti Udyog Limited is an example of joint sector industry.

4. Give two examples of the following in the space provided.

(i) Raw Materials: _____________ and _____________________

Iron ore, plants & animals

(ii) End product: _______________ and _________________________

Building materials, cotton textile

(iii) Tertiary Activities: ________________ and __________


(iv) Agro-based Industries: ____________ and ____________

Food processing, vegetable oil

(v) Cottage Industries: ___________ and ________________

Basket weaving, pottery

(vi) Co-operatives: ______________________ and _____________

Anand milk union ltd, Sudha Dairy


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