Multiple choice questions.
(i) Which one of the following describes a system of agriculture where a single crop is grown on a large area?
(a) Shifting Agriculture
(b) Plantation Agriculture
(d) Intensive Agriculture
(ii) Which one of the following is a rabi crop?
(a) Rice (b) Gram (c) Millets (d) Cotton
(iii) Which one of the following is a leguminous crop?
(a) Pulses (b) Jawar (c) Millets (d) Sesamum
(iv) Which one of the following is announced by the government in support of a crop?
(a) Maximum support price
(b) Minimum support price
(c) Moderate support price
(d) Influential support price
2. Answer the following questions in 30 words.
(i) Name one important beverage crop and specify the geographical conditions required for its growth.
Ans. Tea is an important beverage crop. This plant grows well in tropical or sub tropical climates, and deep and fertile well-drained soil which is rich in humus and organic matter.
(ii) Name one staple crop of India and the regions where it is produced.
Ans. Rice is a staple food crop of India. It grows in the plains of north and north-east India, coastal areas and the deltaic regions.
(iii) Enlist the various institutional reform programes introduced by the government in the interest of farmers.
Ans. The various institutional reform programes introduced by the government for the benefit of farmers are:
- Crop insurance against drought, flood, fire etc.
- Minimum Support Price policy.
- Subsidy on agricultural inputs and resources such as power and fertilizers.
- Kissan Credit Card and Personal Accident Insurance Scheme.
(iv) The land under cultivation has got reduced day by day. Can you imagine its consequences?
Ans. A declining area of land under cultivation coupled with increasing population have many consequences. These are:
- ∙Food shortage for the rising population.
- ∙Rise in price of food grains.
- ∙Unemployment and loss of livelihood for farmers.
- ∙Shortage of supply of raw material for agro-industries.
- ∙Adverse affect on export trade as agricultural products comprise a major section of international trade.
3. Answer the following questions in about 120 words.
(i) Suggest the initiative taken by the government to ensure the increase in agricultural production.
Ans. Various initiative taken by the government to ensure the increase in agricultural production are:
- Collectivization, consolidation of holdings, cooperation and abolition of Zamindari etc. were given priority to bring about institutional reforms in the country after independence.
- Land Reform was the main focus of our ‘First Five Year Plan’.
- The Green Revolution was based on the use of package technology and the White Revolution were some of the strategies initiated to improve the lot of Indian agriculture.
- Minimum Support Price policy, provision for crop insurance, subsidy on agricultural inputs and resources such as power and fertilizers, Grameen Banks, Kissan Credit Card and Personal Accident Insurance Scheme are also some of the reforms bought by Indian Government.
(ii) Describe the impact of globalization on Indian agriculture.
Ans. The impact of globalization on Indian agriculture has been felt since colonial times. Raw cotton and spices were important export items from India. In 1917, Indian farmers revolted in Champaran against being forced to grow indigo in place of food-grains, in order to supply dye to Britain’s flourishing textile industry. Thus, globalization has had its boons and banes for Indian agriculture.
Post liberalization, Indian farmers face new challenges in the form of competition from highly subsidized agriculture of developed nations. This prompts the need for making Indian agriculture successful and profitable by improving the conditions of small and marginal farmers, countering the negative effects of Green Revolution, developing and promoting organic farming, and diversifying cropping pattern from cereals to high-value crops.
(iii) Describe the geographical conditions required for the growth of rice.
Ans. The geographical conditions required for growth of rice are as follows :-
- It is a kharif crop and requires hot and humid climate for cultivation. Temperature above 25°C and high humidity with annual rainfall above 100 cm are favorable for growth of rice.
- Rich alluvial soils of the floodplains and deltaic areas which are renewed every years are ideal for rice cultivation.
- Rice requires abundant rainfall or good water supply through irrigation and flooded fields during the earlier part of its growing season in June-July.
- Plenty of cheap labour as most of the farming involves manual labour.