India is an agricultural country with diverse climatic conditions and soil types. The main source of moisture for crops is a significant factor that influences the types of farming practices in India. Based on the main source of moisture, we can categorize the farming practices in India into three types:
- Rain-fed Farming: Rain-fed farming is the most common type of farming in India. In this type of farming, the crops are entirely dependent on rainfall, and irrigation facilities are either limited or unavailable. Rain-fed farming is predominant in regions that receive adequate rainfall during the monsoon season. Farmers cultivate crops that are suited to the local climate and soil conditions, such as millets, pulses, and oilseeds.
- Irrigated Farming: Irrigated farming is practiced in areas where rainfall is scarce or erratic. In this type of farming, crops are cultivated with the help of irrigation facilities such as canals, tube wells, and pumps. Irrigated farming enables farmers to grow multiple crops in a year, leading to higher yields and increased profitability. The major crops grown under irrigated farming in India include rice, wheat, sugarcane, cotton, and fruits and vegetables.
- Mixed Farming: Mixed farming is a type of farming that involves both rain-fed and irrigated farming. In this type of farming, farmers use irrigation facilities to supplement rainfall and grow crops that require both irrigation and rainfall. Mixed farming is practiced in regions that receive moderate rainfall and have a good water table. The crops grown under mixed farming in India include rice, wheat, millets, sugarcane, and oilseeds.
In summary, the types of farming practices in India can be classified into three types based on the main source of moisture: rain-fed farming, irrigated farming, and mixed farming. Rain-fed farming is common in areas that receive adequate rainfall during the monsoon season, while irrigated farming is practiced in areas where rainfall is scarce or erratic. Mixed farming is a combination of both rain-fed and irrigated farming, and it is practiced in regions that receive moderate rainfall.