1. Answer the following questions briefly.
A. What are the major landforms?
And. The major landforms are: mountains, plateaus and plains. A mountain is any natural elevation of the Earth’s surface. It is considerably higher than the surrounding area. A plateau is an elevated flat land.
B. What is the difference between a mountain and a plateau?
On the basis of elevation and the slope that gets formed, different landforms are classified as mountains, plateaus, or plains. Mountain is any natural elevation of the surface of the earth. Mountains are big and small and they may have very high summits or they may not be high. But one thing is common to all mountains and that is they are all considerably higher than surrounding area. There are mountains even higher than clouds. As one goes up mountains, the climate becomes cooler. Some mountains have frozen rivers over them known as glaciers. Some mountains are under sea so that, they remain hidden and we cannot see them. But some of these are even higher than the highest ones on earth which is really surprising. Mountains have steep slopes and present very littler land for farming. The climate is also harsh so they are not thickly populated.
A plateau is a flat land that has got elevation, and it is separate and distinct from the plains that surround such a land form. A plateau looks like a large table made by nature on a flat land. There are small as well as very high plateaus in the world with their height going up to thousands of meters. Deccan plateau in India is considered to be the oldest plateau in the world. There are many other famous plateaus such as ones in Kenya, Tibet, Australia and many other countries. Tibet plateau is highest with height ranging from 4000-6000 meters. Plateaus are very useful for mankind as they are rich in mineral deposits. Plateaus also have waterfalls occasionally. Most of the plateaus of the world are known as scenic spots and are full of tourists all year long.
C. What are the different types of mountains?
Ans. There are three types of mountains are – Fold Mountains, Block Mountains and the Volcanic Mountains. The Himalayan Mountains and the Alps are young fold mountains with rugged relief and high conical peaks. The Aravali range in India is one of the oldest fold mountain systems in the world. The range has considerably worn down due to the processes of erosion. The Appalachians in North America and the Ural mountains in Russia have rounded features and low elevation. They are very old fold mountains. Block Mountains are created when large areas are broken and displaced vertically. The uplifted blocks are termed as horsts and the lowered blocks are called graben. The Rhine valley and the Vosges mountain in Europe are examples of such mountain systems. Locate them on the world map in the atlas and find out some more examples of this type of landforms. Volcanic mountains are formed due to volcanic activity. Mt. Kilimanjaro in Africa and Mt. Fujiyama in Japan are examples of such mountains.
D. How are mountains useful to man?
Ans. Mountains are very useful. The mountains are a storehouse of water. Many rivers have their source in the glaciers in the mountains. Reservoirs are made and the water is harnessed for the use of people. Water from the mountains is also used for irrigation and generation of hydro-electricity. The river valleys and terraces are ideal for cultivation of crops. Mountains have a rich variety of flora and fauna. The forests provide fuel, fodder, shelter and other products like – gum, raisins, etc. Mountains provide an idyllic site for tourists. They visit the mountains for their scenic beauty. Several sports like para-gliding, hang gliding, river rafting and skiing are popular in the mountains.
E. How are plains formed?
Ans. Most of the plains are formed by rivers and their tributaries. The rivers flow down the slopes of mountains and erode them. They carry forward the eroded material. Then they deposit their load consisting of stones, sand and silt along their courses and in their valleys. It is from these deposits that plains are formed. Generally, plains are very fertile. Construction of transport network is easy. Thus, these plains are very thickly-populated regions of the world. Some of the largest plains made by the rivers are found in Asia and North America. For example, in Asia, these plains are formed by the Ganga and the Brahmaputra in India and the Yangtze in China.
F. Why are the river plains thickly populated?
Ans. The river plains thickly populated as more flat land is available for building houses, as well as for cultivation.
G. Why are mountains thinly populated?
Ans. The mountains are thinly populated because of harsh climate. Also, the slopes are steep, less land is available for farming.
2. Tick the correct answers
(a) The mountains differ from the hills in terms of
(i) elevation (ii) slope (iii) aspect
(b) Glaciers are found in
(i) the mountains (ii) the plains (iii) the plateaus
(c) The Deccan Plateau is located in
(i) Kenya (ii) Australia (iii) India
(d) The river Yangtze flows in
(i) South America (ii) Australia (iii) China
(e) An important mountain range of Europe is
(i) the Andes (ii) the Alps (iii) the Rockies
3. Fill in the blanks.
1. A ___________ is an unbroken flat or a low-level land.
2. The Himalayas and the Alps are examples of _______________types of mountains.
3. _____________ areas are rich in mineral deposits.
4. The _________________ is a line of mountains.
5. The ____________areas are most productive for farming.